Non-Disclosure Agreements

Over one-third of the US workforce is bound to their company by a non-disclosure agreement (NDA). NDAs require employees to be silent about information, like trade secrets and financial information, that is important to the employer’s business. It is important as an employee to understand what your employer is asking you to sign. To learn more about NDAs and the workplace, read below:

A non-disclosure agreement (often referred to as a confidentiality agreement), is a legally-binding contract which governs the sharing of information between people or organizations and sets limits on the use of the information. A recent Harvard Business Review article indicated widespread use in the workplace, with over one third of the US workforce subject to them.

An NDA in the workplace is a legal contract that keeps employees from revealing their employer’s secrets. The NDA creates a confidential relationship between the employee and their employer. The NDA stipulates the information that is to remain confidential and how information can be used.

You may be asked to sign an NDA when you are hired, when your are terminated in exchange for severance pay, or when there is a settlement agreement you have entered into with the employer.

The specific terms of an NDA will differ depending on the circumstances. The information that may be covered by an NDA is virtually unlimited. Generally, by signing an NDA, you promise to not release the confidential information shared with you by your employer.

NDAs are often used to stop the victims from speaking out. They are included in settlement agreements and they prohibit victims of sexual harassment or assault from publicly discussing the settlement and what happened to them. Many victims fear the legal action that may be taken against them if they violate the terms of their agreements. A number of states are passing laws that prohibit provisions in NDAs related to sexual assault and sexual harassment. See our question on this page on NDAs and state law for more information.

No survivor is obligated to share their story. Some survivors prefer to keep the harassment or assault private and willingly enter into an NDA. However, NDAs can have significant consequences. For example, the NDAs used in sexual harassment cases can enable the person or company to repeat the same harassment and assault for decades by silencing victims from warning other’s about the behavior.

If you are a victim of sexual assault or harassment in the workplace and you have signed an NDA, you may still be able to break your silence. Because NDAs can differ, you should consult with an attorney to discuss whether you will be vulnerable to legal action for violating settlement terms or for defamation.

What may happen after you break the terms of an NDA may depend on what’s in your agreement. Take a look at the agreement you signed, what information it relates to, and what the consequences are for breaking the agreement. You should consult a lawyer before breaking the terms of an NDA. If you’re bound by an agreement not to disclose trade secrets, there is a chance that the language could be construed to cover any public statements about what happens in the workplace, although it’s not yet clear whether that argument would hold up in court.

As an employee, you may be asked to sign an NDA as a condition of employment, as part of a severance package, as part of a settlement agreement or in a personal context.

  • Be cautious of an overbroad agreement that seems to be less about protecting confidential company information and more about forcing employees to be silent about everything regarding the company.
  • Check for liquidated damages provisions which specify a cash amount an employee must pay per breach of an NDA. If the number is very high, it may create a dynamic where employees are terrified to come forward even about illegal company behavior because they are afraid of being sued. Courts may throw out a provision where the damages/penalties for violating the agreement are much greater than the harm caused to the company when the agreement is violated.
  • Time limits that go on for your entire lifetime are overreaching and should raise a red flag. They may be considered reasonable by a court if they are for a shorter period of time, but that will vary by state.
  • Forced arbitration clauses or clauses requiring private and confidential arbitration rather than in a public court of law. While those clauses may be legal to include, you should be aware of what they mean.

If what you are told is different from what you see in the written agreement, you need to clarify before signing because the written agreement is binding. Additionally, if the NDA prevents you from bringing discrimination or harassment claims to the proper authority than the NDA is unenforceable.

If you are unsure about the terms of your agreement, you should speak with a lawyer for further clarification.

If you are asked to sign an NDA, you can ask to modify it; however, an employer may or may not be receptive to this suggestion. If you can change the NDA, you may consider adding the following provision:

“Nothing prevents [Your Name] from using his/her own generalized skill, knowledge or expertise that he/she already had, or is publicly available.”

Including this clause in an NDA puts the burden on the employer to prove what you already knew in the case of an alleged breach.

  • Anything that is a matter of public record.
  • Any information that an employee knew prior to his/her employment.
  • Any information the employee gained from sources other than their employer.
  • Any information that is common knowledge in a field.

Additionally, an NDA is not meant to protect a company from doing something illegal. If your company has unethical or illegitimate business practices, you still have a right to inform the proper authorities.

Yes, there are two types of NDAs: unilateral and mutual.

A unilateral NDA is more commonly used. It is used when a business or employer discloses information to their employee, and the employee receives the information and agrees to keep the information confidential.

A mutual NDA is used when the two parties agree keep confidential each other’s information. The mutual NDA is generally used between businesses.

A nondisparagement clause generally prevents an employee from saying anything negative about the company, even on social media. If you are subject to a nondisparagement clause, it is best not to publicly discuss your employer, and especially not online, where proof of your comments could be saved as evidence of a violation. Consult with an attorney to review the agreement before speaking out, even anonymously.

Section162(q) of the new tax bill was originally intended to stop businesses/employers from being able to deduct sexual misconduct settlements conditioned on NDAs; however, it currently states that no deduction shall be allowed under this chapter for any settlement or payment related to sexual harassment or sexual abuse if such settlement or payment is subject to a non-disclosure agreement, or attorneys’ fees related to such a settlement or payment. In addition, attorneys fees related to settlements or payments are not allowed as a deduction. 

The following states have laws in place to bar or limit NDAs in sexual harassment cases.

Arizona. House Bill 2020 allows victims of sexual assault and sexual harassment to break nondisclosure agreements without penalty when communicating with law enforcement or in court proceedings. Under the bill, people who previously signed non-disclosure agreements would be allowed to break those agreements without penalty if asked by law enforcement or during a court proceeding. 

California. Senate Bill 331 (known as the “Silence No More Act”) prohibits nondisclosure clauses in settlement agreements involving workplace harassment, discrimination, or retaliation on any protected bases. The bill also requires that any non-disparagement or other contractual provision that restricts an employee’s ability to disclose information related to the conditions of the workplace must include specific language related to the employee’s right to disclose information about unlawful acts in the workplace. Senate Bill 331 is not retroactive and applies to agreements entered on or after January 1, 2022. 

Senate Bill 331 expands protections in Senate Bill 820 (known as the Stand Together Against Non-Disclosure Act). It went into effect on January 1, 2019 and prohibits the use of confidentiality provisions in settlement agreements for actions including claims based on sex.

HawaiiHouse Bill 2054 HD1 SD1 prohibits employers from requiring an employee to enter into a nondisclosure agreement pertaining to sexual harassment or sexual assault as a condition of employment. The law also prohibits employers from retaliating against an employee for disclosing or discussing sexual harassment or sexual assault.

IllinoisSenate Bill 75 protects employees, consultants, and contractors who truthfully report alleged unlawful discrimination and harassment or criminal conduct in the workplace by prohibiting nonnegotiable confidentiality obligations, waivers, and mandatory arbitration of allegations of discrimination, harassment, or retaliation unless the agreement demonstrates that the employer and employee mutually agreed to the provisions.

Maine. Maine’s prohibits employers from requiring applicants, interns, or employees to enter into settlement, separation, or severance agreements that:

  • limit their rights to report, testify, or provide evidence to a federal or state agency that enforces employment or discrimination laws;
  • prevent them from testifying or providing evidence in federal of state court proceedings in response to a legal process; or,
  • prohibit them from reporting conduct to a law enforcement agency.

The new law also provides that settlement, separation or severance agreements may include provisions preventing the subsequent disclosure of factual information relating to a claim of unlawful employment discrimination only if:

  • The agreement expressly provides for separate monetary consideration for the employee’s guarantee of nondisclosure that is in addition to any other compensation;
  • All parties to the agreement are subject to the nondisclosure requirement;
  • The agreement clearly states that the employee retains the right to report, testify, or provide evidence to federal and state agencies responsible for enforcing employment or discrimination laws, as well as the right to testify and provide evidence in federal and state court proceedings; and,
  • The employer retains a copy of the agreement for six years from the date the agreement is executed or the end of employment, whichever is later.

See the law for more information.

MarylandMd. Code Ann., Labor & Employment Section 3-715 (known as the Disclosing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Act of 2018) declares that any provision in an employment contract or policy that waives any right or remedy to a claim of sexual harassment or retaliation for reporting sexual harassment is void as against public policy.  The Act also includes a separate subsection prohibiting retaliation based upon an employee’s failure to enter into such a prohibited contract.

New Mexico. House Bill 21  limits the use of nondisclosure agreements in settlements of sexual misconduct claims. The law prohibits employers from requiring, as a condition of employment, that an employee agree to a nondisclosure agreement in a settlement agreement relating to a claim of sexual harassment, discrimination, or retaliation whether occurring in the workplace or at a work-related event[s] coordinated by or through the employer. Assembly Bill 60 nullifies provisions of a contract or settlement agreement if they restrict one party from testifying against another about a crime, sexual harassment; discrimination or retaliation. 

New Jersey. Senate Bill 121 prohibits employers from concealing the underlying details of sexual harassment and other claims of discrimination using nondisclosure or confidentiality provisions in settlement agreements. The law also protects employees from  being retaliated against for not entering into any agreement or contract that requires them to waive their substantive or procedural rights. Under the law, employers are responsible for the harm caused to employees who are forced to work in a hostile work environment Senate Bill 121 applies to all workplace discrimination claims alleged or brought under the New Jersey Law Against Discrimination.  

New York. New York General Obligation Law Section 5-336  prohibits employers from requiring confidentiality of underlying facts of all employment discrimination claims (including sexual harassment) in settlement agreements unless the confidentiality provision is the alleged victim’s preference.

Oregon. Senate Bill 726 (known as the Workplace Fairness Act), prohibits employers from entering into a nondisclosure, nondisparagement or similar confidentiality provision with an employee or applicant that prevents the individual from discussing discrimination or sexual assault that occurred at work or between employees. Employers may enter into a settlement or severance agreement that contains a nondisclosure or no-rehire provision in two circumstances:

  • An employee claiming discrimination or sexual assault “requests” to enter into an agreement and is provided a seven-day period to revoke the agreement; or
  • An employee has engaged in unlawful discrimination or sexual assault according to the employer’s good faith determination. 

Tennessee. Tenn. Code Ann. § 50-1-108 prohibits employers from requiring an employee or prospective employee to sign or renew a non-disclosure agreement regarding sexual harassment in the workplace as a condition of employment. 

Vermont. House Bill 707 (known as “An Act Relating to the Prevention of Sexual Harassment) prohibits employment contracts containing provisions that prevent an employee from disclosing sexual harassment or waiving an employee’s rights or remedies with respect to a claim of sexual harassment.

Virginia. Va. Code § 40.1-28.01 (known as Nondisclosure or Confidentiality Agreements; Sexual Assault, Condition of Employment) prohibits employers from requiring job applicants or current employees to execute nondisclosure agreements that would conceal the details of any sexual assault claim an employee may have against the employer.

Washington. Senate Bill 5996 prohibits employers from requiring employees to sign a nondisclosure agreement, waiver, or other document that prevents the employee from disclosing sexual harassment or sexual assault occurring in the workplace as a condition of employment.

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Madeline Messa

Madeline Messa is a 3L at Syracuse University College of Law. She graduated from Penn State with a degree in journalism. With her legal research and writing for Workplace Fairness, she strives to equip people with the information they need to be their own best advocate.