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A Wisconsin Hog Farm Would Produce 9.4 Million Gallons of Manure a Year. Nearby Residents Live in Fear.

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Crawford County is up against Roth Feeder Pig II, which would be the largest hog CAFO in the state and could permanently pollute local aquifers.

CRAWFORD COUNTY, WIS.?‚ÄĒ?When a¬†neighbor tells Carl Schlecht and Kat Tigerman about an industrial hog farm planning construction on the narrow ridge above their home, they think it‚Äôs a¬†joke. The retired couple lives along the Kickapoo River in the heart of southwest Wisconsin‚Äôs Driftless Area, one of the most rugged and ecologically sensitive regions in the state, and a¬†massive industrial polluter moving in was too much to¬†believe.¬†

Now, Schlecht says, ?‚ÄúIt feels like an existential threat.‚ÄĚ 

For the past two and a half years, hundreds of residents, farmers and environmental advocates in rural Crawford County have fought to stop or regulate the proposed farm, Roth Feeder Pig II. It would house more than 8,000 hogs, doubling the size of its sister operation to become the largest concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) for hogs in Wisconsin, and generate 9.4 million gallons of manure annually to be spread on nearby fields. 

The Crawford Stewardship Project (CSP), a collective of environmental scientists and advocates, warns the waste would endanger local waters. According to the CSP, the region‚Äôs sloping topography and fractured bedrock, along with an inadequate spreading area exacerbated by increasing rainfall, makes the area highly susceptible to water contamination. 

‚ÄúOur aquifers in the Driftless Area?‚ÄĒ?once they‚Äôre polluted, they‚Äôre polluted forever,‚ÄĚ says Kelvin Rodolfo, CSP volunteer and science professor at the University of Illinois Chicago. 

When the CAFO was proposed, the CSP rallied neighbors and took their concerns to the township and county boards. In December 2019, the county enacted a one-year moratorium on CAFO construction and tasked a special committee with researching potential impacts. The resulting 222-page report found that CAFO manure runoff could render groundwater undrinkable. 

The study points to Kewaunee County in northeast Wisconsin, a geologically similar region saturated with dairy CAFOs. There, 30% of private wells are unsafe to drink from because of high levels of nitrate and bacteria, such as E. coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). CSP, which runs a water monitoring program in Crawford, reports having already found MRSA in streams at Roth Feeder Pig I. 

Air pollution is another concern. In North Carolina, a state dominated by industrial hog farming, the National Academy of Sciences found air emissions from swine CAFOs are linked to roughly 89 premature deaths annually in Duplin County. Overall, the report found farm pollution causes more than 17,000 U.S. deaths per year, outnumbering deaths from coal plants.

The Crawford County report also notes stench, infrastructure damage, zoonotic disease and plummeting property values as potential impacts. ‚Äú[CAFOs are] deadly, pretty much all around, ‚ÄĚ says Janet Widder, a farmer serving on the report committee.

Wisconsin state law, like its 2004 livestock facility-siting law, has paved the way for easy CAFO expansion, and some Crawford County residents fear the new CAFO is inevitable. ?‚ÄúThere are people who right now are trying to sell their house and [move] out,‚ÄĚ says Forest Jahnke, CSP program coordinator.

According to attorney Adam Voskuil at Midwest Environmental Advocates, a nonprofit environmental law center, ‚Äú[The siting law] removed a significant amount of local control.‚ÄĚ Instead, there is a ?‚Äúone-size fits all‚ÄĚ standard for CAFOs, and local governments are limited in enforcing anything stricter.

Per the law center, the siting law ?‚Äúhas been used by the livestock industry to accelerate the growth of factory farming.‚ÄĚ

Howard Roth, would-be owner of the proposed CAFO and a fifth-generation hog farmer in Crawford County, served as president of the Wisconsin Pork Producers Association, which has lobbied for deregulation, including the siting law. When reached for comment, Roth claimed he has taken the required precautions to prevent soil pollution and is not worried about air and water pollution. When asked about CSP finding antibiotic-resistant bacteria in his groundwater, Roth claimed his farm is not the source?‚ÄĒ?because ?‚Äúonly 1%‚ÄĚ of his animals receive antibiotics.

Despite ongoing opposition, Crawford County‚Äôs one-year CAFO moratorium expired in December 2020. The county‚ÄĒ among the poorest in the state‚ÄĒ argued it couldn‚Äôt afford the research required by the siting law to try to prove the farm would pose health risks. Furthermore, the county fears Roth would litigate any potential regulation, another financial burden.

Just months prior in Polk County, Wis., industry groups sent a threatening letter to the county board hours before a vote on a CAFO moratorium extension there. The letter alleged an extension would violate the siting law, for which board members could face felony charges. While the Midwest Environmental Advocates has since argued that wouldn‚Äôt be the case, the board ended the moratorium.

The letter had a chilling effect on the Crawford County board, too, which tabled regulation discussions and suspended public comment. Now, community hope rests on intervention from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Throughout June, hundreds asked the DNR to issue an environmental impact statement, which could allow the agency to impose stricter regulations on the farm (such as requiring the installation of groundwater monitoring wells, making it possible to hold the farm liable for pollution).

Since 2014, Tyler Dix, permit coordinator at the DNR, only recalls two of Wisconsin‚Äôs 318 CAFOs having an environmental impact statement. Neither moved forward with construction.

Regardless of the outcome, some residents say, the fight is not over.

‚ÄúWhen I‚Äôm not crying about it, it‚Äôs just staggering to me that this is what we have to fight,‚ÄĚ Kat Tigerman says.¬†?‚ÄúWe‚Äôre not giving up the fight. Because we can‚Äôt.‚ÄĚ

This blog originally appeared at In These Times on July 8, 2021. Reprinted with permission.

About the author: Hannah Faris is associate editor at The Wisconsin Idea, an independent reporting project of People’s Action Institute, Citizen Action of Wisconsin Education Fund and In These Times.

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How Unions Can Bridge the Gap Between Climate and Labor Movements

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While U.S. union den¬≠si¬≠ty hit an all-time low in 2019, the non¬≠prof¬≠it sec¬≠tor appears to be one area where work¬≠ers are union¬≠iz¬≠ing. The Non¬≠prof¬≠it Pro¬≠fes¬≠sion¬≠al Employ¬≠ees Union (NPEU) brought sev¬≠en new work¬≠places into their union dur¬≠ing a 16-day peri¬≠od in April, includ¬≠ing the envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tion Friends of the Earth. And while there is no offi¬≠cial data on non¬≠prof¬≠it unions yet (many of them are fair¬≠ly new), cli¬≠mate jus¬≠tice orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions are some of the many work¬≠places that have scram¬≠bled to union¬≠ize both pri¬≠or to and dur¬≠ing the pan¬≠dem¬≠ic for the same rea¬≠sons as oth¬≠er work¬≠ers: pay, ben¬≠e¬≠fits and job security. 

Cli¬≠mate activists have often been denounced by trade union¬≠ists who believe they are out to destroy work¬≠ers‚Äô well-pay¬≠ing jobs. There‚Äôs an old joke that goes,¬†‚ÄúAre you an envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ist, or do you work for a¬†liv¬≠ing?‚ÄĚ But what hap¬≠pens to the often fraught rela¬≠tion¬≠ship between unions and envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions when green staffers become union mem¬≠bers¬†too?

Unions‚Äô pri¬≠ma¬≠ry pur¬≠pose is to give work¬≠ers the abil¬≠i¬≠ty to col¬≠lec¬≠tive¬≠ly bar¬≠gain around work¬≠ing con¬≠di¬≠tions‚ÄĒso it‚Äôs not hard to under¬≠stand why many work¬≠ers would want to be union mem¬≠bers. In fact, labor unions cur¬≠rent¬≠ly have a¬†65% approval rat¬≠ing. As the econ¬≠o¬≠my is in sham¬≠bles, labor‚Äôs sup¬≠port has been¬†steadi¬≠ly increas¬≠ing, per¬≠haps because mil¬≠lions have been laid off, many of whom lost their health insur¬≠ance and received no sev¬≠er¬≠ance. Non¬≠prof¬≠its, which can be financed through a¬†mix of fed¬≠er¬≠al and state fund¬≠ing, pri¬≠vate grants and indi¬≠vid¬≠ual dona¬≠tions, are also in a¬†Covid-induced pre¬≠car¬≠i¬≠ous sit¬≠u¬≠a¬≠tion. Work¬≠ers who may have felt that their jobs were pre¬≠vi¬≠ous¬≠ly secure thanks to an air of pres¬≠tige have seen col¬≠leagues fur¬≠loughed or laid off‚ÄĒor have wit¬≠nessed lead¬≠er¬≠ship make big changes in their orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions with¬≠out involv¬≠ing¬†staff.¬†

Char¬≠lie Jiang, a¬†cli¬≠mate cam¬≠paign¬≠er at Green¬≠peace USA, an envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal non¬≠prof¬≠it, told¬†In These Times¬†that staff there¬†‚Äúhave been orga¬≠niz¬≠ing for quite some time, and the pan¬≠dem¬≠ic strength¬≠ened our resolve. We‚Äôre fight¬≠ing for more clear and con¬≠sis¬≠tent poli¬≠cies and more orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tion¬≠al trans¬≠paren¬≠cy.‚ÄĚ The Green¬≠peace USA Work¬≠ers Union, affil¬≠i¬≠at¬≠ed with Pro¬≠gres¬≠sive Work¬≠ers Union (PWU), was vol¬≠un¬≠tar¬≠i¬≠ly rec¬≠og¬≠nized in August. Jiang said that union mem¬≠bers¬†‚Äúare look¬≠ing ahead to meet¬≠ing man¬≠age¬≠ment with good faith at the bar¬≠gain¬≠ing table‚Ķ We formed a¬†union to fight for fair and bet¬≠ter work¬≠ing con¬≠di¬≠tions, and for a¬†cul¬≠ture root¬≠ed in¬†justice.‚ÄĚ

Unions do far more than allow work¬≠ers to col¬≠lec¬≠tive¬≠ly bar¬≠gain. They give peo¬≠ple the abil¬≠i¬≠ty to prac¬≠tice democ¬≠ra¬≠cy in the work¬≠place, they have the pow¬≠er to change our polit¬≠i¬≠cal sys¬≠tem, and they chal¬≠lenge cor¬≠po¬≠rate prof¬≠it and pow¬≠er‚ÄĒmak¬≠ing them poten¬≠tial allies for envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions that do the same. Groups like Green¬≠peace, the Sier¬≠ra Club and¬†350.org often fight big cor¬≠po¬≠ra¬≠tions over their dan¬≠ger¬≠ous dis¬≠pos¬≠al of chem¬≠i¬≠cal waste, fos¬≠sil fuel emis¬≠sions, fac¬≠to¬≠ry farm¬≠ing and more. Work¬≠ers for these cor¬≠po¬≠ra¬≠tions are the ones who han¬≠dle tox¬≠ic waste, breathe dirty air and process chick¬≠en at poul¬≠try¬†plants.¬†

Envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal groups and work¬≠er orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions are aligned on many issues, and some do work close¬≠ly togeth¬≠er. Accord¬≠ing to Rebec¬≠ca Wolf, a¬†senior orga¬≠niz¬≠er on the fac¬≠to¬≠ry farm team at Food and Water Watch and a¬†mem¬≠ber of NPEU,¬†‚ÄúOur true focus is cor¬≠po¬≠rate con¬≠trol. Union¬≠iz¬≠ing work¬≠ers inher¬≠ent¬≠ly beats back against cor¬≠po¬≠rate con¬≠trol and con¬≠trol of the food sys¬≠tem. I¬†see envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions all the time in cor¬≠po¬≠rate part¬≠ner¬≠ships, and we have a¬†hard line against¬†that.‚Ä̬†

While unions are fund¬≠ed only by mem¬≠bers‚Äô dues mon¬≠ey, many envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions take mon¬≠ey from cor¬≠po¬≠rate donors‚ÄĒsome of which face off against unions in their own work¬≠places. This dynam¬≠ic can cre¬≠ate ten¬≠sion between staff and lead¬≠er¬≠ship at envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions, which may have dif¬≠fer¬≠ent¬†priorities.

Elon Musk, bil¬≠lion¬≠aire CEO of Tes¬≠la, anony¬≠mous¬≠ly donat¬≠ed over $6¬†mil¬≠lion to the Sier¬≠ra Club. But¬†in the sum¬≠mer of¬†2018, after com¬≠ing under fire for a $40,000¬†dona¬≠tion to a¬†Repub¬≠li¬≠can-allied group, Musk asked Sier¬≠ra Club exec¬≠u¬≠tive direc¬≠tor Michael Brune for pub¬≠lic sup¬≠port. A¬†stew¬≠ard at PWU who asked to remain anony¬≠mous for fear of retal¬≠i¬≠a¬≠tion told¬†In These Times¬†that¬†‚ÄúPWU kicked that tough dis¬≠cus¬≠sion off. [We] help them stay ground¬≠ed on work¬≠er issues.‚ÄĚ While Brune ini¬≠tial¬≠ly shared words of sup¬≠port for Musk on¬†his per¬≠son¬≠al Twit¬≠ter account, lat¬≠er that year, the Sier¬≠ra Club¬†released a¬†state¬≠ment¬†in sup¬≠port of work¬≠ers orga¬≠niz¬≠ing at Tes¬≠la‚ÄĒsome¬≠thing union mem¬≠bers believe can be attrib¬≠uted, at least in part, to the union. The anony¬≠mous stew¬≠ard told¬†In These Times,¬†‚ÄúIt‚Äôs impor¬≠tant for unions that rep¬≠re¬≠sent work¬≠ers at pro¬≠gres¬≠sive orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions to hold those orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions account¬≠able.‚ÄĚ With¬≠out a¬†union, it may have been more dif¬≠fi¬≠cult for Sier¬≠ra Club staff to push back against lead¬≠ers and ensure that they pub¬≠licly sup¬≠port¬≠ed Tes¬≠la work¬≠ers instead of their CEO, that stew¬≠ard¬†underscores.¬†

And while unions are able to win impres¬≠sive gains around wages, ben¬≠e¬≠fits and a¬†voice at work, their true pow¬≠er lies in their abil¬≠i¬≠ty to shut down the econ¬≠o¬≠my if nec¬≠es¬≠sary. On the whole, work¬≠ers at non¬≠prof¬≠its and oth¬≠er pro¬≠gres¬≠sive orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions are not nec¬≠es¬≠sar¬≠i¬≠ly in a¬†strate¬≠gic posi¬≠tion to exert lever¬≠age to secure the biggest wins for the cli¬≠mate‚ÄĒtheir going on strike would not have a¬†sig¬≠nif¬≠i¬≠cant impact on the broad¬≠er econ¬≠o¬≠my. Work¬≠ers in logis¬≠tics, health¬≠care and edu¬≠ca¬≠tion have far more pow¬≠er to throw a¬†wrench in how our econ¬≠o¬≠my and soci¬≠ety func¬≠tions. And build¬≠ing trades work¬≠ers, who are like¬≠ly to have more work if leg¬≠is¬≠la¬≠tion like the Green New Deal is passed, could be very influ¬≠en¬≠tial in cli¬≠mate pol¬≠i¬≠cy. Their unions are large and pow¬≠er¬≠ful, and their mem¬≠bers are con¬≠struc¬≠tion work¬≠ers and elec¬≠tri¬≠cians, whose work will be direct¬≠ly impact¬≠ed by both cli¬≠mate change and cli¬≠mate leg¬≠is¬≠la¬≠tion. While build¬≠ing trades work¬≠ers tend to be more con¬≠ser¬≠v¬≠a¬≠tive, the poten¬≠tial for more work and larg¬≠er mem¬≠ber¬≠ship rolls could make them the decid¬≠ing fac¬≠tor in the pas¬≠sage of a¬†Green New¬†Deal.

But envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal staffers‚Äô iden¬≠ti¬≠ty with the broad¬≠er labor move¬≠ment and the sol¬≠i¬≠dar¬≠i¬≠ty that can be strate¬≠gi¬≠cal¬≠ly expressed‚ÄĒsuch as in the case of the Sier¬≠ra Club and Tes¬≠la work¬≠ers orga¬≠niz¬≠ing‚ÄĒcould forge more ties between the work¬≠ers‚Äô move¬≠ment and the envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal move¬≠ment as more of these work¬≠ers orga¬≠nize at their work¬≠places. It‚Äôs also unde¬≠ni¬≠able that the expe¬≠ri¬≠ence of act¬≠ing col¬≠lec¬≠tive¬≠ly with cowork¬≠ers can deep¬≠en polit¬≠i¬≠cal con¬≠scious¬≠ness, no mat¬≠ter one‚Äôs work¬≠place or pri¬≠or polit¬≠i¬≠cal¬†commitments.

Wolf, who was on her union‚Äôs orga¬≠niz¬≠ing com¬≠mit¬≠tee, told¬†In These Times¬†that¬†‚Äúeven though we work to make people‚Äôs lives bet¬≠ter every day at work, col¬≠lec¬≠tive action is the expe¬≠ri¬≠ence you need to tru¬≠ly under¬≠stand pow¬≠er-build¬≠ing. Form¬≠ing a¬†union takes all the messy and good bits of expe¬≠ri¬≠ence, val¬≠ues, and polit¬≠i¬≠cal con¬≠scious¬≠ness and brings them togeth¬≠er in a¬†patch¬≠work that moves every¬≠one¬†along.‚ÄĚ

But a¬†fac¬≠tor that may dimin¬≠ish the influ¬≠ence of these envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal staff unions is the unions they are tied to. NPEU is affil¬≠i¬≠at¬≠ed with the Inter¬≠na¬≠tion¬≠al Fed¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion of Pro¬≠fes¬≠sion¬≠al and Tech¬≠ni¬≠cal Engi¬≠neers (IFPTE), which is a¬†mem¬≠ber of the AFL-CIO, the largest labor fed¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion in the coun¬≠try. In con¬≠trast, NPEU is a¬†fair¬≠ly small union, with¬†‚Äúrough¬≠ly¬†250¬†to¬†300¬†dues-pay¬≠ing mem¬≠bers, about¬†500¬†work¬≠ing on their first con¬≠tract, and hun¬≠dreds more that are in the process of orga¬≠niz¬≠ing,‚ÄĚ accord¬≠ing to Katie Bar¬≠rows, vice pres¬≠i¬≠dent of com¬≠mu¬≠ni¬≠ca¬≠tions for the¬†union.

In con¬≠trast, PWU, which also orga¬≠nizes envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal non¬≠prof¬≠its, is an inde¬≠pen¬≠dent union, which means it‚Äôs not affil¬≠i¬≠at¬≠ed with any oth¬≠er union or any labor fed¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion. (PWU‚Äôs bar¬≠gain¬≠ing units include staffers at Sier¬≠ra Club,¬†350.org, Green¬≠peace USA and the Union of Con¬≠cerned Sci¬≠en¬≠tists.) Accord¬≠ing to the anony¬≠mous Sier¬≠ra Club stew¬≠ard, this inde¬≠pen¬≠dence from the AFL-CIO has actu¬≠al¬≠ly helped the union: PWU is free to run its own pro¬≠gram, which focus¬≠es on anti-racism and social jus¬≠tice. He told¬†In These Times¬†that¬†‚Äúthe mem¬≠bers of PWU are first-time union mem¬≠bers. They nev¬≠er knew what was pos¬≠si¬≠ble in a¬†union, so there are no lim¬≠i¬≠ta¬≠tions. Our pow¬≠er is in the involve¬≠ment of our mem¬≠bers and their¬†creativity.‚ÄĚ

How¬≠ev¬≠er, there are ben¬≠e¬≠fits to being part of a¬†larg¬≠er fed¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion. Only AFL-CIO affil¬≠i¬≠ates are able to shape the federation‚Äôs strat¬≠e¬≠gy and elect its lead¬≠ers, which means that PWU won‚Äôt have a¬†say in whether the AFL-CIO ever sup¬≠ports the Green New Deal. Bar¬≠rows believes that¬†‚Äúif envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal pro¬≠fes¬≠sion¬≠als orga¬≠nize, they‚Äôll be a¬†grow¬≠ing part of the labor move¬≠ment, and they‚Äôll have a¬†voice in deci¬≠sions, espe¬≠cial¬≠ly if they‚Äôre in the AFL. Hav¬≠ing envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal work¬≠ers orga¬≠nize will be help¬≠ful to bridg¬≠ing that gap, and to unit¬≠ing labor and envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬†groups.‚ÄĚ

While envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal staffers have formed unions for the same rea¬≠sons most work¬≠ers do, their unions may be a¬†tool for some¬≠thing greater. The anony¬≠mous stew¬≠ard told¬†In These Times,¬†‚ÄúOur mem¬≠bers are at the inter¬≠sec¬≠tion of labor and envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal work. They work on behalf of envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal caus¬≠es, but they‚Äôre work¬≠ers as well. They‚Äôre try¬≠ing to weave their beliefs about the impor¬≠tance of work¬≠ers into cli¬≠mate leg¬≠is¬≠la¬≠tion and con¬≠ver¬≠sa¬≠tions with politi¬≠cians and union lead¬≠ers.‚ÄĚ The stew¬≠ard point¬≠ed to a¬†pro-union video that PWU mem¬≠bers made in col¬≠lab¬≠o¬≠ra¬≠tion with the Sier¬≠ra Club about the¬†2018¬†Janus v. AFSCME¬†Supreme Court deci¬≠sion, which made it ille¬≠gal for pub¬≠lic sec¬≠tor unions to col¬≠lect fees from non-mem¬≠bers. He also told¬†In These Times¬†that the Sier¬≠ra Club and union also worked togeth¬≠er to release a¬†state¬≠ment¬†about the deci¬≠sion, which quotes exec¬≠u¬≠tive direc¬≠tor Brune as say¬≠ing,¬†‚ÄúToday‚Äôs deci¬≠sion does the bid¬≠ding of the very same cor¬≠po¬≠ra¬≠tions that have pol¬≠lut¬≠ed our com¬≠mu¬≠ni¬≠ties, but we will march¬†on.‚Ä̬†

While it is unde­ni­able that the rift between labor and envi­ron­men­tal orga­niz­ing runs deep, the staff at cli­mate orga­ni­za­tions join­ing the ranks of the labor move­ment could help bridge the divide between these two crit­i­cal move­ments. As Wolf at Food and Water Watch told In These Times, “We can always be doing bet­ter, and while greens in gen­er­al are doing bet­ter, we need to be much more pub­lic about our con­nec­tion to labor, and a broad­er con­nec­tion to and with all social movements.

This blog originally appeared at In These Times on October 9, 2020. Reprinted with permission.

About the Author: Mindy Isser works in the labor movement and lives in Philadelphia.

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Why Every Job in the Renewable Energy Industry Must Be a Union Job

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We need millions of union jobs that are good for both workers and the climate.

The renew¬≠able ener¬≠gy indus¬≠try in the Unit¬≠ed States is boom¬≠ing. Pri¬≠or to the start of the Covid-19¬†pan¬≠dem¬≠ic, which has put mil¬≠lions out of work, over¬†3¬†mil¬≠lion peo¬≠ple worked in clean ener¬≠gy?‚ÄĒ?far more than those who worked in the fos¬≠sil fuel indus¬≠try. And though the decline of fos¬≠sil fuel jobs appears unstop¬≠pable, the unions that rep¬≠re¬≠sent those work¬≠ers are very pro¬≠tec¬≠tive of their mem¬≠bers‚Äô jobs. Sim¬≠i¬≠lar¬≠ly, they‚Äôve also been resis¬≠tant to leg¬≠is¬≠la¬≠tion like the Green New Deal, which would cre¬≠ate more green jobs while also tran¬≠si¬≠tion¬≠ing away from work in extrac¬≠tive indus¬≠tries. Envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal activists believe that green jobs are the future?‚ÄĒ?for both work¬≠ers and our world?‚ÄĒ?but union¬≠iza¬≠tion rates in the renew¬≠able ener¬≠gy indus¬≠try are extreme¬≠ly low. In order to get unions on board with green jobs, the envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal move¬≠ment will have to fight for those jobs to be union. And unions will have to loosen their grip on fos¬≠sil fuels in an effort to embrace¬†renewables.

Fos¬≠sil fuel jobs can pay well (both oil rig and refin¬≠ery work¬≠ers can take home around $100,000 per year), but due to automa¬≠tion and decreased demand, the num¬≠ber of jobs is shrink¬≠ing. And so are the unions that rep¬≠re¬≠sent them. At its peak, the Unit¬≠ed Mine Work¬≠ers of Amer¬≠i¬≠ca boast¬≠ed 800,000 mem¬≠bers, but hun¬≠dreds of thou¬≠sands of work¬≠ers have been laid off in the last few decades. Now UMWA is most¬≠ly a retirees‚Äô orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tion and only orga¬≠nizes a few thou¬≠sand work¬≠ers in the man¬≠u¬≠fac¬≠tur¬≠ing and health care indus¬≠tries, as well as work¬≠ers across the Nava¬≠jo Nation. When a union like UMWA hem¬≠or¬≠rhages mem¬≠bers, many see it as an insu¬≠lar prob¬≠lem that doesn‚Äôt con¬≠cern any¬≠body else?‚ÄĒ?envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ists may even cel¬≠e¬≠brate the clo¬≠sure of mines and refiner¬≠ies, poten¬≠tial¬≠ly pay¬≠ing lip ser¬≠vice to lost jobs, with¬≠out doing much to cre¬≠ate new ones.

‚ÄúAn injury to one is an injury to all‚ÄĚ is not just a¬†slo¬≠gan in the labor move¬≠ment because it sounds good, but because it‚Äôs true. When union den¬≠si¬≠ty is low and unions are weak, the jobs that are cre¬≠at¬≠ed are more like¬≠ly to¬†have low pay, lack ben¬≠e¬≠fits, and be unsafe. And because union den¬≠si¬≠ty in this coun¬≠try is already so low (33.6% in the pub¬≠lic sec¬≠tor,¬†6.2% in the pri¬≠vate), every time an employ¬≠er of union labor out¬≠sources or shuts down, it affects not only those new¬≠ly unem¬≠ployed work¬≠ers, but all work¬≠ers, union and not. When oil refiner¬≠ies and oth¬≠er fos¬≠sil fuel employ¬≠ers close their doors, union mem¬≠bers and oth¬≠er work¬≠ers lose their jobs. And while that may feel like a¬†win for envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ists, it‚Äôs also a¬†loss for all work¬≠ing peo¬≠ple, even those con¬≠cerned about cli¬≠mate change. Unions are one of the only ways work¬≠ing peo¬≠ple have pow¬≠er in this coun¬≠try?‚ÄĒ?with¬≠out them, there will be very few orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions equipped to fight for the pro¬≠grams and ser¬≠vices we deserve, includ¬≠ing ones that are tasked with fight¬≠ing cli¬≠mate change. These kinds of con¬≠tra¬≠dic¬≠tions have caused ten¬≠sion between both move¬≠ments, and cor¬≠rod¬≠ed trust between them. And while there have been some inroads made in the last few years‚ÄĒinclud¬≠ing unions endors¬≠ing the Green New Deal‚ÄĒthere‚Äôs still a¬†long way to go until unions eschew fos¬≠sil¬†fuels.

Upton Sin¬≠clair once said that ?‚Äúit is dif¬≠fi¬≠cult to get a¬†man to under¬≠stand some¬≠thing when his salary depends upon his not under¬≠stand¬≠ing it.‚ÄĚ When you‚Äôre able to feed your fam¬≠i¬≠ly on wages paid for by fos¬≠sil fuels, it‚Äôs hard to see those same fos¬≠sil fuels as a¬†direct threat to your life. Most of us can under¬≠stand why fos¬≠sil fuel work¬≠ers want to hold onto their jobs. And we can also under¬≠stand¬†why a¬†major¬≠i¬≠ty of Amer¬≠i¬≠cans want to sig¬≠nif¬≠i¬≠cant¬≠ly reduce the use of fos¬≠sil fuels.

But between these two con¬≠flict¬≠ing needs is a real oppor¬≠tu¬≠ni¬≠ty: green jobs. The Bureau of Labor Sta¬≠tis¬≠tics pre¬≠dicts that the two fastest grow¬≠ing jobs through 2028 will both be in the renew¬≠able ener¬≠gy sec¬≠tor. While an eco¬≠nom¬≠ic down¬≠turn due to Covid-19 could slow job growth, pre-pan¬≠dem¬≠ic reports showed that solar installers and wind tur¬≠bine tech¬≠ni¬≠cians were set to grow by 63%. None of the 20 jobs pro¬≠ject¬≠ed to grow over 20% in the next eight years are in the fos¬≠sil fuel indus¬≠try. But the open¬≠ing cre¬≠at¬≠ed by the renew¬≠able indus¬≠try for a part¬≠ner¬≠ship between the envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal and labor move¬≠ments is being squan¬≠dered: Unions aren‚Äôt engag¬≠ing in enough new orga¬≠niz¬≠ing, and envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ists aren‚Äôt encour¬≠ag¬≠ing them. There are, of course, some heart¬≠en¬≠ing exam¬≠ples of unions and greens work¬≠ing togeth¬≠er, like the Revers¬≠ing Inequal¬≠i¬≠ty, Com¬≠bat¬≠ing Cli¬≠mate Change report out of the Work¬≠er Insti¬≠tute at Cor¬≠nell Uni¬≠ver¬≠si¬≠ty, which con¬≠vened unions and pol¬≠i¬≠cy experts to devel¬≠op rec¬≠om¬≠men¬≠da¬≠tions for new union jobs which would also fight cli¬≠mate change. But most of the green jobs being cre¬≠at¬≠ed are not union: Only 6% of work¬≠ers in both wind pow¬≠er gen¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion and solar pow¬≠er con¬≠cen¬≠trat¬≠ing sys¬≠tem work are union¬≠ized, and 4% of work¬≠ers in pho¬≠to¬≠voltaics, which cre¬≠ate solar cells to con¬≠vert light to electricity.

There are cur¬≠rent¬≠ly near¬≠ly 335,000 solar work¬≠ers in the coun¬≠try, rep¬≠re¬≠sent¬≠ing a huge oppor¬≠tu¬≠ni¬≠ty for the Inter¬≠na¬≠tion¬≠al Broth¬≠er¬≠hood of Elec¬≠tri¬≠cal Work¬≠ers (IBEW), which admits that ?‚Äúa dis¬≠turbing¬≠ly small per¬≠cent¬≠age of the elec¬≠tri¬≠cal work¬≠ers who install res¬≠i¬≠den¬≠tial solar pan¬≠els in North Amer¬≠i¬≠ca belong to a union.‚ÄĚ Work¬≠ers on solar farms are more like¬≠ly to be union¬≠ized than rooftop solar installers, who can make as lit¬≠tle as $12 per hour doing a dan¬≠ger¬≠ous job and risk¬≠ing elec¬≠tro¬≠cu¬≠tion or a dead¬≠ly fall.

In These Times¬†spoke with a¬†for¬≠mer solar installer, J., at Solar States, a¬†solar installer and edu¬≠ca¬≠tor in Philadel¬≠phia. Installers there start at $16¬†an hour and are offered paid time off, retire¬≠ment and health care ben¬≠e¬≠fits. Most are Black and brown, and accord¬≠ing to J., there‚Äôs a¬†man¬≠date for¬†50% of installers to live in the city lim¬≠its. Lead installers can go up to $22¬†to $25, but that‚Äôs about the high¬≠est they can make on res¬≠i¬≠den¬≠tial jobs. This is why, accord¬≠ing to J., solar installers try to get com¬≠mer¬≠cial work on large build¬≠ings owned by the city, state or busi¬≠ness¬≠es, because it pays more and the jobs are longer‚ÄĒand they often work along¬≠side union¬†members.

On a¬†recent instal¬≠la¬≠tion job on a¬†city-owned build¬≠ing, which trig¬≠gered the pre¬≠vail¬≠ing wage pro¬≠vi¬≠sion, Solar States installers worked next to mem¬≠bers of IBEW Local¬†98, lay¬≠ing the solar pan¬≠els while the union elec¬≠tri¬≠cians wired them. J. (who still works in the indus¬≠try and wants to remain anony¬≠mous) told¬†In These Times¬†that¬†?‚Äúthere‚Äôs a¬†lot of bad blood with the union, but I¬†tried to tell my co-work¬≠ers that the only rea¬≠son we get pre¬≠vail¬≠ing wage is because of them.‚ÄĚ Accord¬≠ing to him, the ten¬≠sion stems from inter¬≠per¬≠son¬≠al issues when they work close¬≠ly togeth¬≠er, and the dif¬≠fer¬≠ences in their wages‚ÄĒIBEW can mem¬≠bers make $72¬†an hour. Relat¬≠ed¬≠ly, the union is pre¬≠dom¬≠i¬≠nate¬≠ly white, and work¬≠ers at Solar States are most¬≠ly peo¬≠ple of col¬≠or, which has also caused ten¬≠sion between the two¬†groups.

Accord¬≠ing to res¬≠i¬≠den¬≠tial solar installers, Local 98 also hasn‚Äôt expressed any inter¬≠est in bring¬≠ing these work¬≠ers into their union. (Local 98 didn‚Äôt return a request for com¬≠ment.) J. told In These Times, ?‚ÄúThey don‚Äôt care about new orga¬≠niz¬≠ing. They want to make sure that all the white men that have been in IBEW for¬≠ev¬≠er con¬≠tin¬≠ue to com¬≠mand a high wage. They have nev¬≠er once tried to reach out to us, and we work side by side!‚ÄĚ This may be because there is no cohe¬≠sive man¬≠date from the inter¬≠na¬≠tion¬≠al union. In fact, dif¬≠fer¬≠ent IBEW locals in Cal¬≠i¬≠for¬≠nia have had con¬≠flict¬≠ing opin¬≠ions on green jobs: Local 18 has slammed the Green New Deal, while Local 428 has embraced job oppor¬≠tu¬≠ni¬≠ties in the renew¬≠able sec¬≠tor. And while unions strug¬≠gle inter¬≠nal¬≠ly over these issues, many envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ists remain indif¬≠fer¬≠ent or unin¬≠ter¬≠est¬≠ed in solar work¬≠ers‚Äô labor con¬≠di¬≠tions. J. said that ?‚Äúespe¬≠cial¬≠ly cus¬≠tomers who are wealthy, they don‚Äôt real¬≠ly think about it at all. Their ques¬≠tion is not how much installers get paid, but how much is my car¬≠bon foot¬≠print offset.‚ÄĚ

If envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal¬≠ists are tru¬≠ly con¬≠cerned about off¬≠set¬≠ting car¬≠bon foot¬≠prints and grow¬≠ing the renew¬≠able sec¬≠tor, they‚Äôll have to fight for gov¬≠ern¬≠ment inter¬≠ven¬≠tion‚ÄĒand to do so suc¬≠cess¬≠ful¬≠ly, they‚Äôll need unions on their side. In Philadel¬≠phia, a¬†Solar States cus¬≠tomer can pay an aver¬≠age of any¬≠where between $21,000¬†and $26,000¬†for solar instal¬≠la¬≠tion on their home. With¬≠out rebates, tax breaks and oth¬≠er incen¬≠tives, res¬≠i¬≠den¬≠tial solar is finan¬≠cial¬≠ly out of reach for most peo¬≠ple, mak¬≠ing it seem more like a¬†hob¬≠by for the wealthy and less like an impor¬≠tant step to fight cli¬≠mate change. The Green New Deal, which calls for¬†?‚Äúmeet¬≠ing¬†100% of the pow¬≠er demand in the Unit¬≠ed States through clean, renew¬≠able, and zero-emis¬≠sion ener¬≠gy sources,‚ÄĚ could close this access gap. And with more than¬†12.5¬†mil¬≠lion mem¬≠bers, the AFL-CIO (the country‚Äôs largest labor fed¬≠er¬≠a¬≠tion) is well poised to get more mod¬≠er¬≠ate Democ¬≠rats on board with the leg¬≠is¬≠la¬≠tion, which, if passed, would cre¬≠ate mil¬≠lions of jobs and expand unions‚Äô ranks. But most unions see the Green New Deal as an attack on union jobs, rather than an oppor¬≠tu¬≠ni¬≠ty to cre¬≠ate more. And yet if renew¬≠able ener¬≠gy got the same kinds of sub¬≠si¬≠dies fos¬≠sil fuel com¬≠pa¬≠nies have, mem¬≠bers of build¬≠ing trades unions would be clam¬≠or¬≠ing to install solar pan¬≠els or wind¬†turbines.

In the mean¬≠time, if there‚Äôs a¬†shared agree¬≠ment between both the envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal move¬≠ment and the labor move¬≠ment that cre¬≠at¬≠ing mil¬≠lions of union jobs is a¬†pri¬≠or¬≠i¬≠ty, both need to actu¬≠al¬≠ly pri¬≠or¬≠i¬≠tize it. Jobs that are good for the envi¬≠ron¬≠ment aren‚Äôt nec¬≠es¬≠sar¬≠i¬≠ly good for work¬≠ers, and jobs that are good for work¬≠ers aren‚Äôt nec¬≠es¬≠sar¬≠i¬≠ly good for the envi¬≠ron¬≠ment. We need jobs that are good for both, and to get there we need unions and envi¬≠ron¬≠men¬≠tal orga¬≠ni¬≠za¬≠tions fight¬≠ing for invest¬≠ment, incen¬≠tives and jobs‚ÄĒtogeth¬≠er. This could involve tying sub¬≠si¬≠dies to a¬†cer¬≠tain per¬≠cent¬≠age of union jobs, or fight¬≠ing for project labor agree¬≠ments at every poten¬≠tial green job site. What¬≠ev¬≠er form it takes, this coali¬≠tion must begin at the premise that a¬†loss of union jobs is detri¬≠men¬≠tal to all work¬≠ing peo¬≠ple in this coun¬≠try‚ÄĒand if we want to fight cli¬≠mate change, the labor move¬≠ment must take the lead, before it‚Äôs too¬†late.

This blog originally appeared at In These Times on August 10, 2020. Reprinted with permission.

About the Author: Mindy Isser works in the labor movement and lives in Philadelphia. She is a frequent contributor to Working In These Times.

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Economic and environmental cost of Trump’s auto rollback could be staggering, new research shows

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The Trump administration’s plan to freeze fuel efficiency standards in defiance of California’s stricter, more environmentally friendly rules is set to have dire ramifications for emissions levels and the economy, according to new research out Wednesday.

Rolling back California’s robust vehicle emissions requirements will cost the U.S. economy $400 billion through 2050, an analysis from the environmental policy group Energy Innovation found. President Donald Trump’s efforts to undo Obama-era rules will also increase U.S. gasoline consumption by up to 7.6 billion barrels, subsequently increasing U.S. transport emissions up to 10% by 2035.

Under Trump, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have been engaged in a bitter feud with California over emissions standards.

California has set its own standards for decades under the Clean Air Act‚Äôs Section 177 through an EPA waiver, with significant success: 14 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the same standards. Data shows that those ‚ÄúSection 177 states‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒ which represent more than 35% of the U.S. auto market ‚ÄĒ have reduced pollution and improved air quality, improving both public health and the environment.

But the Trump administration has targeted California’s waiver, arguing in favor of freezing fuel efficiency standards on new vehicles through 2025 nationally while stripping the state of its exemption. The government is also embroiled in litigation with the Section 177 states, which are fighting to keep their standards.

As California and the White House escalate their feud, Energy Innovation’s new modeling gives a preview of what the Trump administration’s plans would mean long-term.

‚ÄúFreezing federal fuel economy and [greenhouse gas] emissions standards will harm U.S. consumers, who will pay more money to drive their cars the same distance,‚ÄĚ the Energy Innovation report warns, pointing to both economic implications and likely associated climate impacts and poorer air quality.

‚ÄúThe only winners are the oil companies, who stand to sell more gasoline at the expense of American consumers, manufacturers, and the environment,‚ÄĚ the group underscores.

Initially, the firm found that there would be economy-wide financial gains, as low-efficiency cars are cheaper to make. But over the years, increasing fuel expenses are projected to cut into those gains, ultimately costing the national economy hundreds of billions.

Using the open-sourced and peer-reviewed Energy Policy Simulator (EPS), the group looked at the economic impact of freezing the standards nationally and revoking California’s waiver, in addition to a scenario in which California retains its waiver following litigation but the rest of the country is held to the frozen standard.

In the first scenario, the economic cost by 2050 is projected to be $400 billion.

The second scenario is more uncertain. However, the report estimates it would affect around 65% of vehicle sales and could create a split market ‚ÄĒ one where automakers sell more efficient vehicles in Section 177 states and less efficient vehicles elsewhere.

Energy Innovation estimates that scenario would cost between $240 billion and $400 billion by mid-century. Costs on the lower end reflect a situation in which carmakers in non-Section 177 states would still largely comply with California’s standards, while those on the higher end reflect a split market possibility.

In addition to the economic costs, the report also underscores the climate implications. While the growing market for electric vehicles would mitigate climate impacts beginning in the 2040s, Energy Innovation finds that vehicle emissions would spike to their highest point in the 2030s based on current trends.

Under current policy, ‚Äútransportation sector emissions are projected to be 1,370 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)‚ÄĚ by 2035, the report notes. But with a nationwide freeze, emissions would increase to 1,510 MMT in 2035 ‚ÄĒ a 10% increase. If Section 177 states retain their autonomy, that increase would fall between 1,460 and 1,510 MMT.

The report‚Äôs authors clarify that all estimates should be viewed as somewhat conservative, however, given that they assume a trend towards purchasing electric vehicles ‚ÄĒ meaning the actual emissions impact could be much larger.

Energy Innovation policy analyst and report author Megan Mahajan told ThinkProgress that the overall result of a freeze would be rising emissions and increasing costs.

‚ÄúAlthough the current administration argues the standards freeze is in Americans‚Äô best interest, we find that it hurts consumers and the climate,‚ÄĚ Mahajan said. ‚ÄúOur results show that the economic impacts to consumers will only grow over time as they continue to lose out on the significant fuel savings that come with stronger standards.‚ÄĚ

The report also focuses on the international implications of the proposed freeze. Due to the Canada-California fuel economy memorandum of understanding, impacts associated with the move will be felt across the border. Canada’s auto market is closely tied with the United States and the country has indicated it will likely side with California in a split market scenario.

But if that doesn’t happen and Canada follows the U.S. federal freeze, Energy Innovation predicts the move could cost Canadian consumers up to $67 billion through 2050. It could also increase Canadian transport emissions up to 11% by 2035.

‚ÄúIn addition to hurting U.S. consumers, a fuel economy and‚Ķ emissions standards freeze would have global implications,‚ÄĚ the report argues.

Energy Innovation’s findings are only the latest to counter the Trump administration’s push for the freeze. Even the auto industry has expressed deep reservations. Many carmakers had already incorporated the emissions standards into their products, along with Obama-era efficiency efforts. The sudden change could cost companies, and some have made efforts to insulate themselves from any shifts in policy.

At the end of July, California inked a deal with Ford, BMW, Honda, and Volkswagen, with all four major carmakers pledging fuel-efficient cars. At the time, California Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) linked the deal to broader efforts to combat global warming.

‚ÄúClean air emissions standards ‚Ķ are perhaps the most significant thing this state can do, and this nation can do, to advance those goals,‚ÄĚ the governor said. ‚ÄúThe Trump administration is hellbent on rolling them back. They are in complete denialism about climate change.‚ÄĚ

But the standoff between California and the White House is only set to escalate. Last Friday, the EPA and NHTSA sent the final proposed rule to the White House for review.

That same day, California and New York led a group of states in suing NHTSA, which has reduced the penalties facing automakers who fail to meet Obama-era corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Under Trump, the penalty has been reduced from $14 to $5.50 per tenth of a mile per gallon.

And on Tuesday, 30 Senate Democrats encouraged 14 major automakers to join the four companies that have already made a deal on emissions with California.

‚ÄúIn the absence of an agreement between the Federal government and states, the California agreement is a commonsense framework that provides flexibility to the industry to meet tailpipe standards while also taking important steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save money on fuel for consumers,‚ÄĚ the senators wrote in a letter to the companies, which include Nissan, Toyota, and Volvo.

The letter was signed by several presidential candidates, including frontrunners Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT), Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), and Kamala Harris (D-CA).

This article was originally published at Think Progress on August 7, 2019. Reprinted with permission. 

About the Author: E.A. (Ev) Crunden covers climate policy and environmental issues at ThinkProgress. Originally from Texas, Ev has reported from many parts of the country and previously covered world issues for Muftah Magazine, with an emphasis on South Asia and Eastern Europe. Reach them at: ecrunden@thinkprogress.org.

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How Unions and Climate Organizers Learned To Work Together in New York

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Rachel CohenSeveral years before Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) elevated the climate, jobs and justice framework to the national level, a coalition of labor, environmental and community groups joined together to push for a pioneering climate bill in New York.

The idea for the legislation came in the immediate aftermath of the 2014 People’s Climate March, when organizers decided to build on the momentum of the historic demonstration. In 2016 the Climate and Community Protection Act (CCPA) was born, an expansive bill that would require New York to generate half of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030, and eliminate all greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. The bill would also mandate that 40 percent of New York’s climate funding go towards projects in low-income, vulnerable communities, and require all green projects to have high labor standards, including the requirement for a prevailing wage.

‚ÄúIt‚Äôs among the most aggressive decarbonization proposals in the nation,‚ÄĚ said Arielle Swernoff, the communications coordinator for New York Renews, a coalition of over 170 state groups backing the legislation. ‚ÄúThe only state that has really done something comparable is Hawaii.‚ÄĚ

New York Renews offers an encouraging example of how labor and environmental groups can work together to act on climate change.¬†The coalition¬†has the backing of unions like 32BJ Service Employees International Union‚ÄĒa property service workers union, the New York State Nurses Association, the New York State Amalgamated Transit Union, Teamsters Joint Council 16 and the Communications Workers of America Local 1108. It also has the support of a vast number of environmental groups, including the Sierra Club, Environmental Advocates of New York and GreenFaith.

The bill‚Äôs strong language around labor‚ÄĒsuch as requiring that government contracts include mechanisms for resolving disputes and ensuring labor harmony‚ÄĒhas helped quell opposition from building trade unions that typically fight robust climate proposals. The New York AFL-CIO, a labor federation representing 3,000 state affiliates, has notably stayed quiet on the bill.

Nella Pineda-Marcon, the chair of the Climate Justice and Disaster Relief committee with the New York State Nurses Association, told¬†In These Times¬†that it was an easy decision for her union to back the CCPA. Her union, which represents 43,000 nurses statewide, got very involved with the climate crisis following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The following year, Pineda-Marcon traveled to the Philippines as a first-responder to Typhoon Haiyan. ‚ÄúWe are on the front lines of this crisis, we see first-hand the destruction it has,‚ÄĚ she explained. ‚ÄúAnd the massive amounts of pollutants in our air are driving up rates of chronic asthma in our most vulnerable communities‚Ķ We need to lead now and the rest of the world can follow us.‚ÄĚ

The politics of the CCPA are coming to a head as the deadline for passage ends June 19. The bill passed the state Assembly in 2016, 2017 and 2018 ‚ÄĒ and last year a majority of state senators signed on in support. But the Senate Leader¬†never allowed it to come to the floor¬†for a vote. After the 2018 midterms, however, when progressive Democrats ousted a group of centrists who often caucused with Republicans, advocates felt the stars were aligning more favorably for the CCPA‚Äôs passage this year.

Indeed, in January the new Senate Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins¬†released a statement¬†calling the CCPA ‚Äúthe main vehicle through which we will address climate change.‚ÄĚ The state senate held its first-ever hearing on climate change in February, led by Sen. Todd Kaminsky (D),¬†the new¬†Environmental Conservation Committee chairman.

Various scientists testified, including Mathias Vuille, a professor of climate and atmospheric sciences at the University of Albany and a member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Vuille explained that the most significant impact resulting from a changing climate in New York so far has been the rise of intense storms, which have increased in frequency in the Northeast more than any other region in the United States. Sea levels along the mid-Atlantic and New England coasts have also risen much higher than the global average, he said, pointing to a rise in New York sea levels by 280 millimeters over the 20th century, compared to a global average increase of 170 millimeters.

While Vuille cautioned that he‚Äôs neither a renewable energy specialist nor an economist, he said ‚Äúwe owe it to future generations‚ÄĚ to continue leading the transition off fossil fuels, and emphasized a need to reduce emissions in the transportation sector in particular. ‚ÄúI think this can be done if we really have the will,‚ÄĚ he said.

Some labor advocates, like Mike Gendron, the executive vice president of Communications Workers of America Local 1108, also testified in support of the CCPA.¬†‚ÄúAs we transition from fossil fuel based energy to renewable energy, we must make sure that the jobs created, are good paying union jobs with proper training, for both new workers and transitioning workers,‚ÄĚ he said. ‚ÄúThe New York State Climate and Community Protection Act will help make that happen.”

Other unions offered more qualified support, endorsing specific sections of the legislation. Ellen Redmond, representing the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW), testified that her union does in fact believe the CCPA contains commendable language around workers‚Äô rights. ‚ÄúWe do believe the labor protections are strong,‚ÄĚ she said, though suggested it could be even better if there were more teeth and real dollars behind it. IBEW represents about 50,000 members in New York, many of whom work in the utilities industry.

Mark Brueggenjohann, a spokesperson for the IBEW, told¬†In These Times¬†that his union didn‚Äôt have anything new to add to Redmond‚Äôs February testimony and doesn‚Äôt ‚Äúanticipate any further statements‚ÄĚ this month.

State senators also heard from industry groups that raised concerns, like Mitch Paley, testifying on behalf of the New York State Builders Association. Paley said while his colleagues support some aspects of the CCPA, they object to the prevailing wage requirements which would, by their own estimate, increase residential projects by 35 to 45%. The mandated solar requirements for new homes, he added, could increase the cost of each project by $10,000. This would ‚Äúdramatically affect the ability to promote affordable homes in our region,‚ÄĚ he argued.

Darren Suarez, the senior director of government affairs for the Business Council of New York State¬†testified against the bill, arguing that the proposed legislation would ‚Äúincrease energy costs, operational costs, and create uncertainty, compromising the global competitiveness of energy-intensive, trade-exposed industries.‚ÄĚ He insisted the bill‚Äôs goals are not practical, and that the manufacturing sector should be included in developing the state‚Äôs climate policies.

A study by the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts РAmherst found that New York transitioning to a 100 percent renewable economy could support 160,000 direct and indirect jobs initially and an average of about 150,000 in each year over the first decade. The institute also estimates that New York’s fossil fuel workforce is relatively small, comprised of roughly 13,000 individuals, out of a statewide workforce of around 9 million.

A threatening factor for CCPA supporters is that the state‚Äôs governor, Andrew Cuomo, has introduced his own¬†more moderate climate bill‚ÄĒthe Climate Leadership Act. His legislation calls for the electricity sector to be carbon-free by 2040, but does not lay out a concrete plan for other sectors that emit greenhouse gas, like transportation. The two bills are dividing Democrats in Albany. Advocates for CCPA say Cuomo‚Äôs bill does not go far enough, and it‚Äôs imperative¬†to legislate specific climate goals, so they are not ‚Äúat the whim of the executive‚ÄĚ anymore.

Swernoff of New York Renews says the governor’s office has expressed discomfort specifically with the prevailing wage standard for all green projects, the 40% investment into vulnerable and low-income communities, and setting a timeline for the whole economy, as opposed to just for electricity.

New York federal legislators are ramping up pressure on state lawmakers to pass the CCPA. On June 4,¬†eleven Congressional representativesfrom New York, including Reps. Ocasio-Cortez and Nydia Vel√°zquez, sent a letter in support of the bill. ‚ÄúWe believe the people-led Climate and Community Protection Act before you in Albany presents‚Ķan opportunity for New York,‚ÄĚ they wrote. ‚ÄúAn opportunity to cure the injustices of the past and to secure, with intent, a just transition into the future.‚ÄĚ On June 5, New York senator Kirsten Gillibrand¬†sent her own letter¬†in support of the bill.

Maritza Silva-Farrell, executive director of ALIGN, a steering committee member of New York Renews and the New York affiliate of Jobs with Justice, said she knows lawmakers are taking the CCPA very seriously right now, and she‚Äôs ‚Äúhopeful this year its passage will become a reality.‚ÄĚ

When it comes to the governor signing the bill, Silva-Farrell says she is less sure. ‚ÄúYou never know where he‚Äôs going to be on an issue,‚ÄĚ she said. ‚ÄúBut one thing that is very clear is that if he wants to leave a strong legacy for his family, for his kids, and his grandkids, he should get behind this.‚ÄĚ

This article was originally published by In These Times on June 10, 2019. Reprinted with permission. 

About the Author: Rachel M. Cohen is a journalist based in Washington D.C. Follow her on Twitter @rmc031

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Groups Petition OSHA to Issue Heat Standard

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Peggy Frank, a 63-year-old California postal worker ‚ÄĒ and also a mother and¬†grandmother¬†‚ÄĒ¬†died last week while working her usual route in unusually hot weather. Frank‚Äôs heat-related death was not a freak occurrence, nor was it unusual.

‚ÄúAn average of more than 2.2 million workers in the agriculture or construction industries worked in extreme heat each day,‚ÄĚ according to according to a¬†report¬†released yesterday by Public Citizen, in support of a¬†petition¬†by more than¬†130 organizations¬†for an OSHA heat standard.¬† High heat ‚ÄĒ and especially working in high heat ‚ÄĒ can cause serious heat-related illnesses and death. It can also worsen other conditions such as heart disease and asthma.

The report cites the Bureau of Labor Statistics¬†which concludes that ‚Äúexposure to excessive environmental heat stress killed 783 U.S. workers and seriously injured 69,374 workers from 1992 through 2016,‚ÄĚ and these numbers are probably significantly underestimated because many heat-related deaths are registered as heart attacks. Construction workers and farm workers are the occupations most at risk.

Although it seems hard to believe, almost 50 years after OSHA was created, the agency still has no occupational heat standard. High heat has been plaguing workers for a long, long time ‚ÄĒ pretty much since God said ‚ÄúLet there be light.‚ÄĚ We‚Äôve known about the hazards of heat stroke and how to prevent them for a long time as well.

And, of course, the problem has gotten much worse since the beginning of time. The groups petitioning OSHA ‚ÄĒ which include Public Citizen, Farmworker Justice, Interfaith Worker Justice, the Natural Resources Defense Council, United Farm Workers, United Food and Commercial Workers Union and several other labor unions ‚ÄĒ¬† tied the need for an OSHA heat standard to global warming which is significantly increasing the risk to workers. The petition noted that

Global warming is resulting in more frequent days of extreme heat, and record-breaking summers are now becoming the norm. 2017 was the second-hottest year on record, surpassed only by 2016. Indeed, 17 of the 18 hottest years on record have occurred since 2001‚Ķ.¬†Record-setting years will be common in the coming decades, as temperatures are projected to increase by 2.5¬įF (1.4¬įC) for the period 2021‚Äď2050 relative to 1976‚Äď2005 even if we aggressively reduce greenhouse gas pollution worldwide.

Groups Petition OSHA For A Heat Standard

Yesterday, more than 130 organizations announced a petition to OSHA for a heat standard that would protect workers from the hazards of high heat.  Joining the press conference were former OSHA Directors Dr. Eula Bingham and Dr. David Michaels as well as former California/OSHA Director Ellen Widess. The press conference, which included the passionate statement of a man whose brother died of heat exposure, can be heard here.

Federal OSHA, which concluded that extreme heat was a factor in the deaths of at least six workers in 2017, has been concerned about the problem for many years. The agency launched a national¬†heat education campaign¬†in 2012, following successful efforts to prevent heat-related deaths among workers cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico.¬† OSHA¬†borrowed CalOSHA‚Äôs¬† their ‚ÄúWater, Rest, Shade‚ÄĚ campaign and developed a cell-phone heat app, that would analyze the hazards of heat for workers in their geographical area, and recommend measures to protect themselves. (Available from the¬†Apple Store¬†or from¬†Google Play.)¬† OSHA also increased enforcement under its General Duty Clause, which the agency uses when there is no standard. But, according to former OSHA head David Michaels, the Obama administration declined to launch rulemaking for a heat standard due to lack of time and resources while working on the silica, beryllium and other OSHA standards issued during the last administration.

Three OSHA state-plan states ‚ÄĒ¬†California,¬†Washington, and¬†Minnesota¬†(indoor) ‚ÄĒ have heat standards, leaving¬†130 million workers in the rest of the country who lack the protections of a national OSHA heat standard. The military also has strict heat standards and in 2016, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)¬†¬†issued the third version of its¬†criteria for a recommended heat standard¬†‚Äúwhich includes the following elements: heat stress threshold, rest breaks, hydration, shade, heat acclimatization plan, PPE, exposure monitoring, hazard notification, worker training, medical monitoring, injury surveillance, and recordkeeping.‚ÄĚ

The report and petition argue that federal OSHA‚Äôs current efforts and voluntary activities are not enough. The report points out that an OSHA analysis of heat-related fatality cases show that ‚Äú17 of 23 fatalities (74 percent) involved workers who were in their first three days on the job, and eight (35 percent) victims were on the very first day of work,‚ÄĚ because employer did not follow industry recommendations to allow workers to acclimatize, or get used to the heat for a few days before heavy work.

Congresswoman Judy Chu (D-CA), who spoke at the press conference,  promised to introduce legislation that would require OSHA to issue a heat standard.

The petition outlined a number of elements of an OSHA heat standard, which would reqiure employers to:

  1. Provide mandatory rest breaks with increased frequency in times of extreme heat and significant exertion.
  2. Provide access to shaded and otherwise cool conditions for employees to rest during breaks.
  3. Provide personal protective equipment, such as water-cooled and air-cooled garments.
  4. Make provisions for adequate hydration.
  5. Implement heat acclimatization plans to help new workers safely adjust to hot conditions.
  6. Regularly monitor both the environmental heat load and employees’ metabolic heat loads during hot conditions.
  7. Medically monitor at-risk employees.
  8. Notify employees of heat stress hazards.
  9. Institute a heat-alert plan outlining procedures to follow when heat waves are forecast.
  10. Train workers on heat stress risks and preventive measures.
  11. Maintain and report records relating to this standard.
  12. Institute whistleblower protection programs to ensure that employees who witness violations of the heat stress safety standard are free to speak up.

This blog was originally published at Confined Space on July 18, 2018. Reprinted with permission.

About the Author: Jordan Barab was Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor at OSHA from 2009 to 2017, and spent 16 years running the safety and health program at the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME).

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People’s Budget Puts Forward An Aggressive Plan To Green Our Economy

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Isaiah J. Poole

Members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus will formally unveil their fiscal 2017 People’s Budget on Tuesday, and when they do one of the key features they will tout is an aggressive plan to shift the country to a green energy future.

‚ÄúClimate change is no longer just a problem for a future generation ‚ÄĒ it is here today,‚ÄĚ the budget document says, adding that the nation needs ‚Äúto take bold action to fight climate change and invest in a clean-energy economy that supports green jobs with good wages.‚ÄĚ

The policies embodied in the People‚Äôs Budget closely track the policies that the Campaign for America‚Äôs Future, along with partners National People‚Äôs Action, Alliance for a Just Society and USAction, called for in their progressive policy platform last year. The budget even echoes the platform language: ‚ÄúCatastrophic climate change is a clear and present danger. The United States should lead the global green revolution that builds strong and resilient communities.‚ÄĚ

The People’s Budget would impose a tax on carbon polluters that would start at $25 per ton of carbon dioxide emissions and increase at a rate of 5.6 percent a year. Much of the money raised from that tax would be used to fund a range of renewable energy initiatives and to help low-income individuals cope with any increases in their energy bills that might result from the combination of the carbon tax and the switch to renewables.

This carbon tax would, according to the Energy Information Administration, lead to the U.S. cutting its carbon emissions 26 percent below 2005 levels within five years. That would be a significant contribution toward the United States’ pledges during the Paris climate talks last year to help limit global warming to no more than 3 degrees Celsius (about 5 degrees Fahrenheit), and preferably much lower.

The budget would also eliminate about $135 billion in fossil fuel subsidies over 10 years. These tax expenditures, combined with other loopholes fossil fuel companies typically exploit, enable these companies to pay a tax rate that is on average only about 11 percent of their profits, according to one study by the conservative-leaning Taxpayers for Common Sense. By shutting down these subsidies, the People’s Budget is able to pour resources into helping communities protect themselves from the consequences of climate change that are already beginning to unfold.

Lukas Ross of Friends of the Earth called the People‚Äôs Budget ‚Äúthe greenest option in Washington‚ÄĚ in a post on DailyKos. Ross noted that in addition to what the budget proposes to do that is directly related to climate change, it includes $12 billion to cover the public financing of elections. That‚Äôs important to the environmental movement because so far this election season, ‚ÄúBig Oil has already poured over $13 million into Congressional races and over $100 million into the presidency. Climate solutions require politicians who aren‚Äôt beholden to Big Oil, and even though public financing can‚Äôt guarantee direct climate results, it can guarantee a more level playing field for candidates not drowning in oil money.‚ÄĚ

The People‚Äôs Budget is a comprehensive road map for economic reform that will stand in sharp contrast to what Republican congressional leaders will propose this week as they launch their own 2017 budget debates. As the National Priorities Project outlines, the budget ‚Äúincludes a $1 trillion in much-needed investment in our national infrastructure ‚Ķ. fully funds Early Head Start, giving kids a strong start early in life, and adopts the president‚Äôs proposals for universal preschool ‚Ķ provide[s] federal matching funds to states so that students could go to college debt-free ‚Ķ does away with the Pentagon slush fund after fiscal year 2017 (Overseas Contingency Operations), saving $761 billion over ten years ‚Ķ [and] If you earn a billion dollars or more each year ‚Ķ the People‚Äôs Budget would assign you a tax rate of 49 percent [that] is still lower than the highest individual tax rate during most of the presidency of conservative hero President Ronald Reagan.‚ÄĚ

The budget also serves as a standard for what a presidential or congressional candidate should be willing to embrace in order to earn progressive support. In that regard, a coalition of grassroots organizations are telling Democratic house members that their vote on the People’s Budget, expected the week of March 21, will be a key vote in weighing their support.

To declare yourself a citizen co-sponsor of the People’s Budget, and to show Congress that the ideas in the People’s Budget have broad support, sign this petition that will be delivered to Congress when the House begins floor debate.

This blog originally appeared at OurFuture.org on March 14, 2016. Reprinted with permission.

Isaiah J. Poole worked at Campaign for America’s Future. He attended Pennsylvania State University and lives in Washington, DC.

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Pesticide Threat Looms Large Over Farmworker Families

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No matter how good your next meal tastes, it’s likely it made society ill.

A new analysis by the Pesticide Action Network North America (PAN) draws a disturbing connection between pesticides in our food system and serious health problems among women and children. The report reviews empirical research linking agricultural chemicals to birth defects, neurological disorders, childhood cancers and reproductive problems.

Some of these chemicals make their way into the foods we eat, but they are more acutely concentrated in the environments surrounding farmlands. Children in or near farming areas can be exposed through myriad channels, from contaminated soil to the air in playgrounds.

But children in farmworker communities are especially at risk. While the report confirms the growing public concerns about health risks permeating our food chain, it also shows how socioeconomic inequalities can shovel many of the worst effects onto exploited, impoverished workers.

There‚Äôs been much public¬†debate over the importance of¬†organic produce, sustainable farming and regulating genetically modified foods–usually spurred by¬†concerns over consumer health or animal rights.¬†We hear less about the safety concerns that affect the workers who handle our fruits and vegetables before anyone else. For many¬†Latino migrant workers, there‚Äôs no¬†equivalent of a comprehensive¬†safety label–no¬†option¬†to avoid the ubiquitous poisons in the field. Many worry that to complain about working conditions would mean being fired. Others simply–and quite reasonably–have little faith in the anemic government regulatory systems.

PAN cites research showing that¬†pesticide injuries¬†are prevalent among agricultural workers. Various studies cited in the report also suggest¬†an epidemic of¬†chemical ‚Äúdrift‚Ä̬†from fields into nearby homes and neighborhoods. According to a¬†2009 report by the advocacy groups Earth Justice and Farmworker Justice¬†(FWJ), ‚Äúa growing number of epidemiological studies link pesticide drift to specific adverse health effects in humans, including autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson‚Äôs disease, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.‚ÄĚ

While the problem is politically invisible, the effects are all too apparent. The PAN report describes the experience of Ana Duncan Pardo, a community health activist in North Carolina, who had a jarring encounter with farmworker families:

Within five minutes I had noted multiple cleft palates and several children with apparent Down Syndrome…. It was shocking and disturbing to walk into a room with a group of parents and children that easily represented three to four times the national average for birth defects.

The effect is likely compounded by the widespread use of child labor in agriculture–children barely in their teens¬†can legally work on farms. That¬†puts kids in daily contact with toxins that could irreparably harm their brains and bodies.

A FWJ briefing paper points to a history of¬†vast dissonance¬†between the federal regulation of harmful pesticides for heavily exposed¬†workers, and parallel standards for the general public. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act establishes public health-based safety protections, for example, but environmental advocates point out that farmworker families’ health vulnerabilities are neglected and essentially ignored in regulatory assessments of the social costs of industrial pesticide use.

Children of farmworker families are left with far weaker protections despite their special vulnerability. Despite some restrictions on child workers handling pesticides, according to FWJ, ‚ÄúChildren under 16 can still handle Category III or IV pesticides even though the chronic hazards associated with these chemicals include ‚Äėpotential neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption, and carcinogenic effects.‚Äô‚ÄĚ

Even if they don’t work in the fields, the children of farmworkers are not necessarily safe in their own homes. Virginia Ruiz, FWJ’s director of Occupational & Environmental Health, explains that farmworkers working with pesticides carry ‚Äútake-home residues‚ÄĚ on their clothes and skin. While safety warnings recommend avoiding physical contact with contaminated workers, Ruiz says, “It’s sort of unrealistic expectation of people to refrain from hugging their children and other¬†family members as soon as they get home.”

The PAN analysis urges consumers and parents to take action for stronger safety protections. These could include mandates to phase harmful pesticides out of the market, and promoting pesticide-free school lunches and playgrounds.

Nonetheless, the battle against the pesticide threats on farms can’t be limited to the consumer end of the food chain. Farmworkers need to be engaged as stakeholders in pursuing just solutions to the unique risks posed to their communities. Farmworkers have played a leading role pushing for tighter EPA regulations as well as grassroots efforts to mobilize communities against pesticide drift. For example, a community-driven campaign in California’s Central Valley led to the creation of buffer zones to keep pesticide contamination away from sensitive locations like schools, farmworker camps and residential areas.

Kristin Schafer, coauthor of PAN’s report, tells Working In These Times, ‚ÄúFarmworker families were essential to the success of these efforts–some working behind the scenes, others speaking out to demand protections for their families.‚ÄĚ She adds that environmental monitoring projects¬†in other farmworker communities have provided opportunities for laborers ‚Äúto document pesticide drift from neighboring fields, and use [this]¬†as scientific evidence to advance these protections.‚ÄĚ Community activists are now pressing California’s regulatory authorities to transition farms away from pesticides and toward greener alternatives.

Still, in every policy debate, farmworker families will face tremendous barriers of race, language ability, political disenfranchisement and poverty. Those aren’t chemical threats, but they constitute the climate of oppression that blankets the nation’s farms, and that corrosive cloud is now drifting into all our communities.

This post originally appeared in Working In These Times on October 20, 2012.  Reprinted with permission.

About the Author: Michelle Chen’s¬†work has appeared in AirAmerica, Extra!, Colorlines and Alternet, along with her self-published zine, cain. She is a regular contributor to In These Times‚Äô workers‚Äô rights blog, Working In These Times, and is a member of the In These Times Board of Editors. She also blogs at Colorlines.com. She can be reached at michellechen@inthesetimes.com.

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