On September 24, just after 3 PM, a 36-year-old Haitian immigrant named Marianie Sanon was sitting on a particleboard bench in the back of a van overcrowded with 22 other Haitian temp workers on their way to the night shift at a factory in Evansville, Indiana. She noticed that the van driver seemed to be driving dangerously fast down Interstate 69. Sanon had recently moved from Miami to Washington, Indiana, on the hope of landing a good job at the local branch of a temp agency called ServiceXpress. This would have been her fourth day temping at a plant operated by AmeriQual, an Evansville, Indiana-based manufacturer of prepackaged military food for the Department of Defense.
The last thing Sanon remembers of the van ride was watching the driverâa 30-year-old man named James Allen who helped his father run a van service that he called âHaitian Transportationââattempt a high-speed, slalom-like maneuver to get around a truck.
Three days later, Sanon emerged from a coma in a hospital in Evansville, Indiana. She had suffered severe head trauma, had several fractured vertebrae, a bone in her left arm had been shattered and she still had shards of glass still imbedded in her body.
The accident had left two of her fellow passengers dead. As it tumbled across the interstate, the van disintegrated, ejecting Sanon onto the pavement and sending more than a dozen other survivors to the hospital. As she lay in her hospital bed and gathered information about her co-workers, Sanon says she began to wonder why she had heard nothing from the temp agencyâServiceXpress, a subsidiary of Delaware-based Service Generalâthat deployed her, or from AmerQual itself. Not only had there been no offer of help, but not a single person from either firm had checked in, called, visited or sent a letter, Sanon says.
Sanon called ServiceXpress and spoke with a manager. âShe said she was sorry for what happened to me,â Sanon told me, âbut that she cannot do anything for me.â
Sanon soon received a letter from ServiceXpress.
We thank you for your time that you have been with ServiceXpress; we want to help in some way from the traumatic experience that you have been through. We hope this gift card and food basket can help you get back on your feet. We want to wish you the best regards in everything you do.
Aside from the $50 Walmart credit, Sanon says that she soon received a paycheck from ServiceXpress that came to $71.00. (She says she never received the food basket referenced in the letter and has heard nothing from AmeriQual.) Meanwhile, Sanon, who was airlifted from the crash site, began receiving the first of her medical bills (many more are on their way), which quickly amounted, she says, to roughly $105,000.
Out of work and unable to pay rent on her apartment, Sanon soon became homeless. She currently sleeps in a womenâs shelter in downtown Evansville.
The subcontractor maze
Steven Chancellor is the Chairman of AmeriQual,Â according to Bloomberg. HeÂ has an ardent passion for big-game hunting on African safari trips and has even used his wealth and influence to lobby the Botswanan government to lift its ban on lion hunting. Chancellor has also proven an energetic Republican activist, hosting aÂ high-profile fundraiserÂ for Mitt Romney in 2012.Â Before that, he reportedly held a Republican fundraiser in 2004 election of President George W. Bush who, from the White House,Â assisted ChancellorâsÂ crusade against Botswanaâs lion hunting ban.
Immediately after the I-69 van crash, AmeriQual expressed sympathy for the victims but alsoÂ made clear thatÂ it had enlisted the workers through ServiceXpress, which sent the temps to the factory for $11 per hour. Yet ServiceXpress, in turn, emphasized that the vanâs driver worked for a different business. James Allen, the vanâs driver, was recently arrested for his role in the van crash and Neil Chapman, Sanonâs attorney, says Allen likely has little in assets for the crash victims to draw from. (AmeriQual declined to provide comment for this story.)
Since the Great Recession, the temporary staffing industry has boomed, and temp employment has accounted for significant portions of rebounding job growth. Tempsâwho are employed by agencies and whose labor is simply rented out by third-party businessesâhave become seen as some of Americaâs most vulnerable workers. Labor advocates say that, in treating workers as replaceable units of labor, the temp industry can overlook workersâ most basic human needs. Â Through the layering of contractors and subcontractors, many corporations who rely on temps have effectively shielded themselves from numerous forms of liability for temps they retain through third-party agencies.
Labor advocates across the country have identified the safety of vans that transport temp workers to job sites as a key issue. In 2013, ProPublicaÂ published a diagram, drawn by a temp worker, of an overcrowded van said to be a typical feature of the New Jersey temp economy. Workers in New Jersey I spoke with this week say that they are still being transported in woefully overcrowded conditions.
âThe problems with the vans from the agencies is that they pack them in over capacity,â a Spanish-speaking temp worker in northern New Jersey told me through a translator and labor organizer named Louis Kimmel, the executive director ofÂ New Labor. âLogically when itâs over capacity and no one has seatbelts on, for exampleâand sometimes drivers might be driving when theyâre still drunkâweâre putting ourselves at risk just by getting into a full van like that.â
Sanon herself expressed surprise at the lack of responsibility assumed by AmeriQual and ServiceXpress after the crash. âI was like, how am in the hospital and why am I not hearing from anyone?â Sanon said.Â âI’m very strong, but really, I need help. I cannot do this by myself.â
“A heroic effort”
Bamdad Bahar, the president of ServiceXpress, said that his office in Indiana did more than just send Walmart cards and food baskets. â[O]ur team there provided round the clock support for the employees, including taking family members to and from the various hospitals,â Bahar said in an email. âIt was truly a heroic effort.â Bahar said that he had taken out life insurance plans that would provide the families of each deceased worker with a $5,000 payment.
Bahar also reiterated that his company has nothing to do with the accident. âI mentioned we provided maximum support feasible. This was NOT a workmans comp case, and was NOT an industrial accident. The driver and van company are NOT part of our company, and we are NOT responsible for the accident, the blown tire etc.â He added that he is looking into filing a libel suit against the local newspaper in Indiana, theÂ Evansville Courier & Press,Â for its coverage of the accident. âThere is really NO need to refer to us in relation to the accident,â Bahar said in a subsequent email. âI shut my operation in Indiana because of all this negative press.â
After the accident, Jacques Estime, who is involved in Washington, Indianaâs Haitian community, launched a fundraiser for the victims of the I-69 rollover crash. After securing enough money to pay for the funerals of the deceased, Estime said he split the leftover money 17 ways among the injured victims, who will each receive a check from Estime for $196.95.
In late September, shortly after the van crash, AmeriQual announced in a Facebook post that it would launch a donation drive among its full-time employees to compensate the injured temps. Yet Sanon has heard nothing about AmerQualâs fundraiser. It is unclear if the company gathered a single donation. Estime said the ServiceXpress had donated one thousand dollars to a funeral fund.
Estime told me that the victims are coping with an array of physical and psychological injuries. âSome of them are badly hurt, some of them need therapy,â Jacques told me. âSome havenât been sleeping well. They’ve been having horrible nightmares. All they see are people dying.â
In late October, a Gibson County prosecutor reportedly filed 19 criminal charges against the vanâs driver, James Allen, who had tested positive for marijuana during a blood test taken just after the crash. The charges against Allen range from âcausing death while operating a vehicle under the influence of a controlled substanceâ to âcausing serious bodily injury while operating under the influence,âÂ according toÂ theÂ Evansville Courier & Press.
Last week, Sanonâs attorney, Neil Chapman, filed a suit against not only James Allen and his father, Robert, who owns the van, but also against Ameriqual and ServiceXpress. The civil complaint seeks to dispute any notion that the Allensâ transit business operated with autonomy from Xpress and AmeriQual, and asserts that the three businesses were operating as a joint venture. âA principle motivating factor for Ameriqual to choose ServiceXpress was because it offered a competitive advantage of other temporary agencies: transportation of the Haitian employees free-of charge as a part of its advertised, integrated incentive package to its factory clients.â
SanonÂ told me that, before the accident, she still owed $50 to a man she had paid $200 to bring her from Miami to Washington, Indiana. Although the AmeriQual wage was modest, it was the best she could find, she said, and she had hoped to use the earnings to become debt-free. With medical bills that she estimates total over $100,000, that goal now seems impossible.
âIâm struggling for my life right now,â Sanon said. âI cannot do this by myself.â
This blog was originally posted on Our Future on November 18, 2015. Reprinted with permission.
About the Author:Â Spencer Woodman is aÂ journalist based in New York. He has written on labor for The Nation and The Guardian. You can follow him on Twitter atÂ @spencerwoodman and reach him via email at Contactspencerwoodman@gmail.com.